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  1. Introduction
  2. Population Changes and Poverty Rates in Rural Counties
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An adequate agronomic nutrient management should be a balanced nutrition and fertilizers are the key factor on supplying nutrients. Urea is the most commonly used fertilizer-N source, despite potential losses by NH3 volatilization. Thus, new fertilizers technologies are needed to support the increasing demand and avoid the low N use efficiency NUE. The reduction of NH3-N volatilization can be achieved by the use of natural aluminosilicates with nitrogenous fertilizer materials. This review consolidates the current status on the subject and the experience with the application of aluminosilicates as a slow release plant-nutrient fertilizer.

Volatilization losses of nitrogenous fertilizers on the soil surface could be reduced with addition of natural aluminosilicates. Clay minerals zeolites are widely used in many countries to reduce NH3 volatilization from amide N fertilizers, such as urea, besides several organic forms of nitrogenous sources. The reduction in ammonia losses by volatilization and the increased efficiency of N utilization and slow release nature of urea-zeolite mixtures when urea is used together with aluminosilicates was demonstrated in laboratory, greenhouse and field experiments with different crops and environments.

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Special Issue Article Open Access. Cakmak Corresponding Author E-mail address: cakmak sabanciuniv. Street, , Kocaeli, Turkey Search for more papers by this author. Tools Request permission Export citation Add to favorites Track citation. Share Give access Share full text access. Share full text access. Please review our Terms and Conditions of Use and check box below to share full-text version of article.

Summary Zinc Zn still represents an important health problem in developing countries, caused mainly by inadequate dietary intake.

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Why wheat grain needs to be enriched with Zn for better human nutrition There are several critical facts that highlight the importance of increasing the Zn concentration in wheat grain for human consumption. Roles of Zn in human physiology and health Zinc has diverse physiological functions in biological systems.

Figure 1 Open in figure viewer PowerPoint. Concentration of Zn in edible portion of different foods collected in Istanbul I. Cakmak, unpublished results. Figure 2 Open in figure viewer PowerPoint.

Population Changes and Poverty Rates in Rural Counties

Dilution of Zn in wheat grain because of increases in yield There have been marked increases in the grain yield of major cereal crops over the past years, especially during the Green Revolution, which began most markedly in the s Grassini et al. Localization and bioavailability of Zn in wheat grain and the effects of milling Zinc is mainly localized and concentrated in the aleurone and embryo parts of wheat grain.

Figure 3 Open in figure viewer PowerPoint. The intensity of the red colour is associated with the Zn concentration see Ozturk et al.

Advances Agronomy - AbeBooks

Agronomic biofortification with zinc through fertilizer application Conventional and molecular plant breeding, genetic modification transgenic technologies and agronomic interventions including appropriate fertilizer applications are the major tools that are used and investigated for the biofortification of food crops with Zn. Figure 4 Open in figure viewer PowerPoint. Figure 5 Open in figure viewer PowerPoint. For more detail about the applications, please refer to Zhou et al. Possible economic and environmental concerns of the fertilizer strategy A possible drawback of the fertilizer strategy for biofortification is the extra cost of Zn fertilizer application, which might not have a clear economic return unless crop productivity is limited by Zn deficiency or there is a premium price for biofortified grain.

Conclusions It is clear that the Zn fertilizer strategy is an effective way to biofortify food crops with Zn, and it is also advantageous because it might also contribute to i better yields depending on the extent of soil Zn deficiency, ii improved seed and seedling vigour and iii reduced root uptake and shoot or grain accumulation of Cd. Acknowledgement This study benefited greatly from the research activities funded by the HarvestZinc project www.

Abdoli, M.

Cited article:

Effects of foliar application of zinc sulfate at different phenological stages on yield formation and grain zinc content of bread wheat cv. Azarian Journal of Agriculture , 1 , 11 — Google Scholar.

Advances Agronomy

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